"Someone needs to explain this to the Cypriots," Schaeuble told German public television ZDF.
Some help could come from Russia, a longtime ally of Cyprus. But those talks have been strained by the announcement of the deposit seizures, since Russians hold up to a third of the 68 billion euros ($87.92 billion) in deposits in Cyprus.
Cyprus could seek to extend repayment of a 2.5 billion euros ($3.23 billion) loan Russia granted Cyprus in late 2011, when the country could no longer borrow from international markets.
The Cypriot finance minister is in Moscow to discuss financial aid while Anastasiades, the president, spoke with President Vladimir Putin after the vote.
For Cypriots who risked losing a chunk of their life savings in the bailout deal, the parliamentary vote was a moment to rejoice — and think ahead.
"We shouldn't lose our cool," said Panayiotis Violettis, a 56-year-old retired government worker. "When banks open, if we pull all our money out, it would be like we would be punishing ourselves."
Insurance salesman Lambros Kannaouros, who has almost 50,000 euros ($64,645) in the bank, said his options were limited: "I'm not going to do anything. What I'm I going to do? Where will I take it? Where will I put it?"
Although Cyprus is the smallest eurozone country to be bailed out, its rescue plan had sent shockwaves through the single currency area as it was the first time savers' banks accounts have been directly targeted. Other bailed out countries such as Greece, Ireland and Portugal have raised funds by imposing new taxes.
Proponents of the deposit seizure argued it would have made foreigners who have taken advantage of Cyprus's low-tax regime share the cost of the bailout.
Andreas Charalambous, a senior official at the finance ministry, said Cypriot authorities believe depositors should be protected, but that a wholesale exemption for those below 100,000 euros ($129,290) would mean a "disproportionate" burden on large savers, and a "very detrimental" knock-on effect on economic growth.
Under the original bailout plan sketched out in Brussels early Saturday, Cyprus agreed to raise 5.8 billion euros ($7.5 billion) by taxing bank accounts. In exchange, it would receive the 10 billion euros ($12.9 billion) in rescue loans from other eurozone countries and the IMF. Depositors with less than 100,000 euros ($129,290) would pay 6.75 percent; deposits above that threshold would be taxed 9.9 percent.
But the change made Tuesday to protect small depositors was not enough for lawmakers.
"It was not possible for the Cypriot parliament and its people to accept such an unfair, disagreeable and one-sided proposal," Education Minister Kyriakos Kenevezos said on Greek state NET television. "Now we are faced with very difficult developments ... No one must panic because panic never helps solve any problem."
Steve Rothwell in New York, David McHugh in Frankfurt and Frank Jordans in Berlin contributed to this report.
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