By The Associated Press, Associated Press
Here are the winners of this year's Nobel prizes by category:
Americans Alvin Roth and Lloyd Shapley for the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design, which among other things explains market processes at work when doctors are assigned to hospitals, students to schools and human organs for transplant to recipients.
— PHYSIOLOGY or MEDICINE
Briton Sir John Gurdon and Japan's Shinya Yamanaka for their discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed into immature cells that can be turned into all tissues of the body, a finding that revolutionized understanding of how cells and organisms develop.
Serge Haroche of France and David Wineland of the U.S. for "for ground-breaking experimental methods" that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems.
Americans Robert Lefkowitz and Brian Kobilka for studies of proteins that let body cells respond to signals from the outside, helping scientists develop better drugs.
Mo Yan, China for his works that merge folk tales, history and the contemporary for vivid portraits of Chinese life.
The European Union for the organization's contribution to building peace on a continent ravaged by war.
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