Another sign of the defendants' resolve came in a new song the band released Friday on the Internet: "Putin Is Lighting the Fires of Revolution."
Samutsevich's father said he had met with his daughter before the court session and she was prepared for a prison sentence. "We tried to comfort her," said Stanislav Samutsevich.
Amnesty International, which has called the women prisoners of conscience, said the court ruling "shows that the Russian authorities will stop at no end to suppress dissent and stifle civil society."
Governments including the United States, Britain, France and Germany denounced the sentences as disproportionate.
President Barack Obama was disappointed by the decision, White House spokesman Josh Earnest said. "While we understand the group's behavior was offensive to some, we have serious concerns about the way that these young women have been treated by the Russian judicial system," he said.
Further controversy was stirred up by the detention of Kasparov, now one of Putin's fiercest critics. He said he was beaten by the police who detained him, but police claimed that he bit an officer's finger. After his release, Kasparov tweeted that he was going to an emergency room "to check my injuries and to prove that I am not drunk and haven't bitten anyone."
The Pussy Riot case has helped to energize the opposition. Protest leader Alexei Navalny condemned the verdict as a "cynical mockery of justice" and said the opposition would step up its protests.
Even some Kremlin loyalists strongly criticized the verdict. Former Finance Minister Alexei Kudrin said it has dealt "yet another blow to the court system and citizens' trust in it."
"The country's image and its attractiveness in the eyes of investors have suffered an enormous damage," he said.
Mikhail Fedotov, the head of a presidential advisory council on human rights, voiced hope that the sentence will be repealed or at least softened. Mikhail Barshchevsky, a lawyer who represents the Cabinet in high courts, said that the verdict had no basis in Russian criminal law.
The Pussy Riot case has underlined the vast influence of the Russian Orthodox Church. Although church and state are formally separate, the church identifies itself as the heart of Russian national identity and critics say its strength effectively makes it a quasi-state entity. Some Orthodox groups and many believers had urged strong punishment for an action they consider blasphemous.
The head of the church, Patriarch Kirill, has made no secret of his strong support for Putin, praising his leadership as "God's miracle," and he described the punk performance as part of an assault by "enemy forces" on the church. He avoided talking to journalists Friday as he left Warsaw's Royal Castle following a ceremony in which he and the head of Poland's Catholic Church called for mutual forgiveness and reconciliation between the churches.
The Orthodox Church said in a statement after the verdict that the band's stunt was a "sacrilege" and a "reflection of rude animosity toward millions of people and their feelings." It also asked the authorities to "show clemency toward the convicted in the hope that they will refrain from new sacrilegious actions."
A handful of Orthodox activists joined the crowd outside the courthouse. "I'm glad they were punished like criminals and didn't get away with it," said Dmitry Tsorionov, holding a Bible. "They committed a grave crime and nobody should do it again."
The case comes in the wake of several recently passed laws cracking down on opposition, including one that raised the fine for taking part in an unauthorized demonstrations by 150 times to 300,000 rubles (about $9,000).
Another measure requires non-governmental organizations that both engage in vaguely defined "political activity" and receive funding from abroad to register as "foreign agents." Putin has accused foreign countries of feeding much of the dissent in Russia.