"The Tokyo conference will decide the lives of millions of people for years to come. We know that when the troops leave the attention will leave," said Christine Roehrs, spokeswoman for Save the Children in Afghanistan. "We are worried that at Tokyo they will be talking about the conditions for aid rather than the aid itself."
Other organizations worry that there is a feeling that the Afghan war has been won or is at an end.
"There is a need to portray this as a success story, especially in the United States. There have been gains, but they are reversible," said Louise Hancock, Oxfam's head of policy and advocacy in Afghanistan.
The Afghan economy, which is largely driven by international aid and military spending, is widely expected to go into recession after 2014. The U.S. already has almost halved the just over $4 billion it gave in 2010 and that is expected to be further cut next year.
European Union countries are expected to contribute the equivalent of about $1.5 billion of the funds required post-withdrawal, but they like others, worry about how their funds will be spent.
"We know Afghanistan will need continuous support and the EU is committed to that. But we are not blind and we feel a considerable fatigue among taxpayers in the EU and beyond," said Vygaudas Usackas, the EU's special representative for Afghanistan. He described Tokyo as a "game changer" because the Afghans would be held accountable for the funds they receive in the future.
Japan agrees that the conference won't merely be a handout fest.
Tadamichi Yamamoto, the special representative for Afghanistan and Pakistan at Japan's Ministry of Foreign Affairs, stressed that Afghanistan must demonstrate its ability to properly implement and govern development projects.
That commitment is expected to come in a document that will lay out a number of requirements including free and fair elections in 2014, improved finances and management, respect for human rights and respect for the rule of law.
The funds themselves will be channeled through the Afghan budget or trust funds controlled by international organizations such as the World Bank. To get the funds, the Afghan government has drafted 22 "national priority programs." But to get endorsed, they have strict implementation and accountability clauses.
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