By AMY TEIBEL, Associated Press
QUNEITRA CROSSING, Occupied Golan Heights (AP) — Syria's embattled leader, Bashar Assad, appears to be losing one of his last bastions of reliable support: the Druse Arab community in the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights.
In the snow-covered villages of this strategic highland, Druse are quietly breaking a long-standing code of silence and — for the first time since Israel captured the Golan from Syria in 1967 — holding protests against the Syrian government for its brutal crackdown on opponents. Anti-Syria graffiti has sprouted up, and hundreds of people have joined a Golan-linked Facebook group critical of Assad.
"Support for the opposition is growing each week, you could say, if not every day," said Salman Fakhr Deen, a researcher at Al Marsad, a Golan-based human rights group. "But it isn't dominant. It isn't militant."
He says that on several occasions in recent weeks, dozens and at time hundreds of protesters have gathered in the Golan's main square, dominated by a sculpture of legendary Druse warrior Sultan Pasha Atrash, to raise their voices against the regime on the other side of the frontier.
These small gatherings are far from the crowds of hundreds of thousands, of raw emotion and fist-pumping anger, of the mass uprisings elsewhere in the Middle East over the past 14 months.
But the very act of stepping into the square is a major departure for the Golan's 20,000-member Druse community, which historically has been extremely reluctant to openly criticize the autocratic Assad family that has ruled Syria for the past four decades.
Some, particularly older residents who remember the days of Syrian rule, maintain a strong affinity for Syria. Others feared they might be harmed if the territory is ever returned to Syria, or had concerns that the Syrian regime would retaliate against relatives across the frontier.
But faced with the mounting scope of carnage in Syria, where thousands of people, mostly civilians, are believed to have been killed in an 11-month uprising against Assad, small numbers of Golan Druse are bringing their criticism out in the open.
The Druse are a secretive offshoot of Islam whose adherents live primarily in Syria, Israel, Lebanon and Jordan.
Israel captured the Golan, a strategic plateau overlooking northern Israel, in the 1967 Mideast war and subsequently annexed the territory. That move has never been internationally recognized, and Syria has demanded the return of the entire Golan as a condition for a peace.
Although they enjoy good relations with Israeli authorities, and a majority were born under the Israeli occupation, the Golan Druse identify emotionally and through family ties with Syria. Some residents study in Syria or travel there to marry.
In the early weeks of the uprising against Assad last March, they lined up staunchly behind him, at least publicly. There were no demonstrations backing his opponents, and those who would express concern over Syria's problems would often attribute them to the coterie around Assad and not the Syria leader himself.
But the bloodletting has surged since.
More than 5,400 Syrians were killed in 2011, according to U.N. figures, and activists say hundreds more have died in the first few weeks of this year.
To be sure, many Golan Druse will still publicly offer unstinting support for the Assad regime, insisting that media reports of bloodshed are overblown or fabricated altogether.
"The situation was good," said Wissam Safadi, one of 15 Druse who returned to the Golan on Monday for breaks from university studies in Syria funded by the Assad government.
Before they came home, six Druse women departed for Syria on mourning visits for relatives who died in Syria. Both groups passed to and from the Golan through a passage in the Syrian town of Quneitra just several hundred yards (meters) away. The Israeli and Syrian militaries control each side of the passage, with an internationally monitored buffer zone in the middle.
"Why would I be afraid?" asked Rima Agabani, one of the six women on mourning calls. "Nobody goes to their country afraid. "
But there are also signs of cracking support.