By Rocketing Israeli Civilians, Hamas Raises the War Stakes

How Hamas is playing the spoiler.

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Israelis in the besieged town of Ashkelon take cover during a rocket attack.

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ASHKELON, ISRAEL—Until now, Israel's home front in the war with Gaza has been limited to about 25,000 people in the border town of Sderot and a few nearby farming communities. But the latest escalation brought the Mediterranean coastal city of Ashkelon under Gazan rocket fire, which represents a strategic threat. "The country can't allow this city to be broken. There are 120,000 people living here; there's vital national energy and strategic infrastructure," said Mayor Roni Mehatzri, on his way to visit three residents being treated at a local hospital for rocket shrapnel wounds. The chilling precedent hanging over the city is that of Sderot, which has indeed been broken in body and spirit by seven years of rockets from Gaza, causing an estimated one quarter to one third of its residents to leave.

Israel has been widely accused of overkill in the conflict with Gaza, especially during this latest round in which more than 120 Palestinians, including many civilians, were killed along with three Israeli soldiers. Even visiting Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice, while supporting Israel's right to self-defense against "blind bombardment of civilians" by Hamas and Islamic Jihad, called on Prime Minister Ehud Olmert's government "not to use this excess force."

Incoming rockets. But Israel faces a grave dilemma. It tore down its settlements and removed its soldiers from the Gaza Strip in September 2005, yet Gaza's militants have kept on firing short-range mortars and Kassam rockets at Sderot, which lies about a mile east of the border. Israel's lethal retaliations not only failed to stop the rockets—which very rarely kill anyone but make life hellish for everyone within range—but usually prompted Gaza's fighters to escalate in kind.

Because getting out of Gaza didn't pacify the militants and superior firepower didn't deter them, Israel has been left to fight a war of attrition. As long as the damage was limited to Sderot and a few farming villages, the government basically played tit for tat, wary as it is of an all-out ground assault on Gaza that would cost many Israeli soldiers' lives while providing at best temporary relief from the rockets, which would almost certainly resume once the Army pulled back out.

But under Hamas's leadership, Gaza's arsenal is steadily evolving, getting a major boost recently when masses of Gazans, under an onerous Israeli blockade, tore down the border wall with Egypt and imported every sort of item—including additional weaponry. Now the militants have a greater number of Iranian-made Grad rockets with heavier warheads and stronger engines than the locally made Kassams. So instead of 25,000 Israelis living within striking range, some 250,000 are exposed.

The radicals' prime target is about 5 miles up the coast in Ashkelon. This is a thriving city whose power station serves the entire southern half of Israel and whose dazzling beaches draw loads of tourists. Some 20 Grads hit the city last week, causing a few minor injuries and damaging several residential buildings. But the potential for a disastrous blow that could provoke a full-scale war was obvious from the close calls: One rocket landed in the parking lot of a major government building, while another hit a house a short distance from three synagogues, a community center, and the homes of two Israeli cabinet ministers.

Under pressure from an angry public and right-wing political parties, Olmert has pledged to continue attacking the militants until the rocketing ceases. "As of now," he told the Knesset, "everything is possible—ground and air assaults, special operations, it's all on the table."

The latest tactic being discussed is for the Army's artillery to "return fire toward the source of the launching [of rockets], even if it's in a populated area," as Vice Premier Haim Ramon, the leading proponent of this approach, suggested in a cabinet meeting. This has become a very popular idea among Ashkelon residents. "For every rocket they fire, if we fire 20 shells at them, wherever they are, then they'll know better than to try again. That'll stop it for sure," insists restaurant owner Rafi Levy. However, Attorney General Meni Mazuz informed the cabinet that such a policy would constitute a "war crime."