The administration also predicts that the new regulations will cost the auto industry about $135 billion from 2017 to 2025.
The new rules were adopted after an agreement between the administration and 13 automakers last year. That's a change from the past, when automakers fought the regulations, saying they cost too much.
Industry leaders repeatedly told the Obama administration that they wanted one nationwide fuel standard, fearing separate mileage standards from California and other states.
"They wanted certainty so that as they invest in the future they will know what rules they are playing by," the EPA's Jackson said.
Fuel economy standards were first imposed on U.S. automakers in the 1970s. The aim was to make cars more efficient and reduce the nation's dependence on foreign oil at time when the Arab oil embargo was creating gasoline shortages. The administration says this is the first update in decades.
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration will enforce the standards, calculating the average mileage of cars sold by each automaker. Automakers can be fined if they don't comply.
The requirements, which can be imposed without congressional approval, will be reviewed in 2018 and could be reduced if the technology isn't available to meet the standards.
The rules are tough, but General Motors, the largest U.S. car company, will roll out features to comply, spokesman Greg Martin said.
"Consumers want higher fuel efficiency in their cars and trucks, and GM is going to give it to them," he said.
Krisher reported from Detroit.
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