That part of the case revolves around 37 of Java's "application programming interfaces," or APIs, that provide the blueprints for making much of the software work effectively. Other major companies, including IBM Corp, have licensed some of Java's APIs, but Google never did.
Sun Microsystems, which Oracle bought along with Sun's Java technology two years ago, had made most of Java freely available to computer programmers. Sun also sold licenses to companies that made significant alterations, known as forks, as Google did.
Oracle contended Google's changes violated a promise to maintain Java so it works on any technology platform — a concept known as "write once, run anywhere."
"The overwhelming evidence demonstrated that Google knew it needed a license and that its unauthorized fork of Java in Android shattered Java's central write-once-run-anywhere principle," Oracle said in a Monday statement.
Oracle, which is based in Redwood Shores, Calif., pointed to internal emails indicating Google's executives realized they needed a Java license shortly after work began on Android in 2005. Google eventually broke off talks with Sun. When Android was released a few years later, Sun Microsystems CEO Jonathan Schwartz publicly applauded it.
Google framed its initial discussions about a possible Java license as part of negotiations to develop Android in partnership with Sun. When those talks fell apart, Page testified, Google made sure Android relied on the free parts of Java combined with more than 15 million of its own unique computer coding.
Google, which is based in Mountain View, Calif., also tried to depict Oracle's lawsuit as a desperate grab for money after Ellison realized his company wouldn't be able to develop its own software for the rapidly growing mobile computer market. Oracle makes most of its money from selling database software and applications that automate a wide range of administrative tasks.