But some teams care more than others. Of the 22 Tour teams, 14 have demonstrated extra commitment to anti-doping by joining the Movement for Credible Cycling. Its members commit to anti-doping measures more stringent than required by the WADA code. The group's name, in itself, speaks to cycling's uphill battle to restore faith in its athletes and administrators.
HOW MIGHT RIDERS STILL BE DOPING? That partly depends on how much money they have and how sneaky their doctors are. Sophisticated and well-advised cheats are better at evading tests than dopey dopers muddling along with banned performance-enhancers by themselves. Small doses of commonly abused drugs flush out quickly from the body, meaning testers don't detect them unless they are lucky or smart enough to collect samples at just the right time. Small doses of EPO remain tough to detect. A small blood transfusion also could slip past undetected.
But some anti-doping experts believe such 'micro-doses' might not provide much of a performance boost.
"Micro-doses have potentially less effect," said Zorzoli. "Making the assumption that just taking micro-doses you will never be caught, I would not bet on that if I was an athlete."
WHAT ELSE COULD BE DONE? Arguably, what cycling needs most is not to ramp-up testing even further but a truth and reconciliation process that would allow the sport to unearth all of the doping skeletons in its closet, once and for all, so cycling fans, sponsors and riders could then focus wholly on the present and less on the past. As it is, the sport's strides continue to be overshadowed by a constant drip-drip-drip of doping confessions and revelations from the Armstrong years. In France, the run-up to this Tour was dominated by media reports that EPO was detected in a urine sample that French rider and now broadcaster Laurent Jalabert provided at the race way back in ... 1998. This blast from the past infuriated five-time Tour champion Bernard Hinault, who works for the race organizers.
"That was 15 years ago. We have to stop unearthing the dead," the website of sports daily L'Equipe quoted him as saying. "There's nothing new in saying that at the end of the '90s and the start of the 2000s, there was an extremely dark period in cycling. We know that. Cycling cheated, perhaps more than the others, but today it is no different from the others."
SO IS CYCLING WORTH WATCHING? One could ask that of any sport. Doping isn't unique to cycling.