In addition, a 50-game suspension of NL MVP Ryan Braun was overturned after his lawyers argued his urine sample wasn't handled as the rules in the drug program specified at the time.
"Win at all costs in sport at every level," US Anti-Doping Agency CEO Travis Tygart wrote in an email to The Associated Press. "Athletes and their entourages will do whatever it takes if they think they have a chance to get away with it."
The five positive tests are the most in the major league program since there were eight in 2007.
Beane took a chance on suspended slugger Manny Ramirez earlier this year. Ramirez signed with Oakland while completing his suspension for a positive test but was released in June per his request while struggling in the minors.
"Baseball and the union have both been pretty aggressive in their approach," Beane said.
Colon did not file a grievance a person familiar with the suspension said, speaking on condition of anonymity because that detail wasn't announced. Also, the person said, MLB hasn't found any links between Cabrera and Colon at this point.
World Anti-Doping Agency President John Fahey said Wednesday that he wasn't surprised baseball officials discovered Cabrera associate Juan Nunez purchased a website and attempted to create evidence to support a claim that the outfielder inadvertently took the substance that caused the positive test.
"The fact that a well-known and highly paid athlete has attempted to avoid or reduce sanctioning for an anti-doping violation is not a surprise to WADA," Fahey said. "What concerns WADA is the alleged elaborate scheme that Cabrera and his advisers concocted, one that involved a fake website, an email trail of fictitious orders and a nonexistent supplement product, in an effort to prove he inadvertently ingested the banned substance synthetic testosterone."
Colon had been thankful to get a second chance with the A's. His 10 wins are the most since his Cy Young season.
"Well, through all the changes that have been made, and all the tests, it just doesn't make sense, let's put it that way," Twins manager Ron Gardenhire said of two suspensions in an eight-day span. "We're hoping we're past all that."
Colon has credited a stem-cell procedure he had two years ago for saving his career. He had fat and bone marrow stem cells collected and injected into his troublesome right elbow and shoulder in an unproven technique. Colon had no idea how it would turn out, but he responded and spent 2011 with the Yankees.
Joseph R. Purita, an orthopedic surgeon in Florida, told The New York Times last year that he flew to Colon's native Dominican Republic and helped a team of doctors there with the treatment on Colon. He said he has used human growth hormone in the procedure before, but not in this case with the pitcher.
HGH is banned by Major League Baseball.
The Bay Area already had been shocked by Cabrera's suspension.
"Two guys — that's why they've got the policy, I guess," Balfour said. "The guy may be innocent. You just hope there's some mistake there."
The A's did welcome back starting left-hander Brett Anderson in Tuesday night's win over the Twins following a 14-month absence because of elbow ligament replacement surgery. Beane and Melvin feel especially fortunate to have him now.
Drug-testing labs check urine for its ratio of testosterone to epitestosterone, which usually is 1:1 in adult males. A 4:1 ratio is considered a positive test, but baseball officials said this week that even if there is a lower ratio, the lab conducts an isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) test. The IRMS test determines whether the testosterone is exogenous, meaning it came from outside the body.
There have been 76 suspensions this year under the minor league drug program.
Red Sox manager Bobby Valentine wouldn't address Colon's suspension specifically, but did add, "I just wish we'd get that loss back he pitched against us."