By DANICA KIRKA, Associated Press
LONDON (AP) — There's London. And then there's the rest of the country.
A tale of two Britains has increasingly emerged since the Great Recession. While the government trumpets the country's recovery from the financial crisis and its status as the world's fastest-growing developed economy, the rhetoric hides an increasing divide: One that pits London's boom against the malaise in cities such as Manchester and Birmingham that are struggling to remain vibrant in the 21st century.
Buoyed by foreign investment and a resurgent financial industry, the economy of London and the rest of Britain's South East region has expanded almost twice as fast as the rest of the country since the 2008 financial crisis. A chasm that began opening with the decline of Britain's textile and coal industries a century ago is widening as London's ability to attract jobs and investment leaves the rest of the country struggling.
Britain's economy is, by some calculations, the most dependent on a single urban area among the world's most industrialized nations.
"It's almost the definition of polarization," said Danny Dorling, a professor of geography at Oxford University. "It's pulling apart in a quite dramatic way."
Policymakers are considering a range of ideas to address the imbalance. Among them is building a 43 billion-pound ($71 billion) high-speed rail network to connect London with Birmingham, Manchester and Leeds, helping the northern cities become viable alternatives for businesses to locate. Another idea is for Manchester and Liverpool to merge into a super-city that could better compete with London for investment.
The issue of economic inequality — how to get more people to share the fruits of the recovery — is of growing concern for governments around the world.
It is also central to the political fortunes of Prime Minister David Cameron, whose Conservatives are trying to broaden their base into traditional Labour Party strongholds outside southeastern Britain in hopes of winning next year's election. The Conservatives were forced to form a coalition with the Liberal Democrats after failing to win a majority four years ago after 13 years of Labour governments.
A HOUSE DIVIDED
Measured in terms of geography, Britain's economic divide is among the widest of the seven most industrialized countries, according to figures from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. London and the rest of Britain's South East region account for about 35 percent of U.K. economic output. Only Tokyo and Paris and their surrounding regions rival London for the top spot. New York, the biggest economic center in the United States, generates just 7.3 percent of national gross domestic product. In the case of Britain and Japan, critics note the countries are smaller, making it easier for one metropolitan area to dominate.
When Mayor Boris Johnson recently suggested that London issue its own visas for international artists and technology wizards, critics only half-joked that London might take it a step further and become its own city state, like the Vatican.
That dominance translates into higher wages for workers in London as the city attracts those with skills in high demand. Londoners last year earned an average of 41,143 pounds ($68,297), 51 percent more than the national average.
The gap is even bigger in the housing market, where foreign buyers have snapped up London homes as investments rather than places to live. So vast is the demand for high-end homes that London's skyline is changing, with glass-and-steel apartment blocks sprouting along the banks of the Thames.
Home prices in the most expensive parts of London are now almost 25 times higher than Britain's cheapest homes, up from 10 times in 2007, according to research by the independent Smith Institute.