1758—James Monroe, the fifth president of the United States, is born.
1788—Maryland ratifies the U.S. Constitution without adding any amendments.
1945—Benito Mussolini is executed, ending Fascist rule of Italy.
1992—The food pyramid, featuring six food groups, is presented by the U.S. Department of Agriculture.
2001—The Russians launch a spacecraft carrying the first paying space tourist, a California businessman who paid $20 million for the privilege.