The change is significant. Before 1940, immigration was handled under the Department of Labor—it was a worker issue. Under the Department of Justice, it was a legal and civil rights issue. Under DHS, it is an enforcement and terrorism issue. The agency is a bureaucracy to keep out rather than welcome in, according to Swartz, now president of Strategic Solutions Washington, a public policy consulting firm that works to build left-right coalitions. "A bureaucracy set up for homeland security purposes is bound to have a different culture and mind-set that attracts certain kinds of people to work there," Swartz says. The top priority of DHS, he explains, is to prevent terrorist attacks, not help people get visas. "It's a cultural matter, and cultures get institutionalized in bureaucracies."
In recent years, the enforcement energy, particularly among conservatives, has been channeled full force toward border security. The fight in Congress doesn't always break down by party, but typically Democrats call for comprehensive immigration reform and Republicans say complete border security should be in place before any other changes come to the table.
"9/11 just awoke everybody to the fact that it was awfully easy to get into the United States," says Iowa Republican Sen. Chuck Grassley, a member of the Senate Subcommittee on Immigration, Refugees, and Border Security. The terrorist attack is one reason he focuses on border security, though he emphasizes a secure border means secure against anyone crossing without permission. "When you're talking about securing the border, you're talking about securing it for people who want to come here … for very peaceful reasons or even for very violent reasons," he says. "It doesn't matter whether they're disrespecting our laws on doing harm to Americans or disrespecting our laws on entering our country."
Others have gone further, even suggesting terrorists have set up training camps along the U.S.-Mexico border, like Texas Republican Rep. John Culberson on Fox News in 2005 and Florida Republican Rep. Allen West during his 2010 congressional campaign.
But it's unclear whether such claims have merit or are simply rumor. DHS press secretary Matt Chandler says his department currently "does not have any credible information on terrorist groups operating along the Southwest border."
Texas Democratic Rep. Silvestre Reyes, former chairman of the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, has a problem with this kind of rhetoric. "It is regrettable and foolish that some of my colleagues want to go as far as to manufacture issues that have nothing to do with illegal immigration," he says. Reyes spent 26 years working for the Border Patrol in Texas, and he agrees the borders need to be secure, but he thinks talking about terrorists on the border is just a strategy to create a sense of chaos and fear for political gain. "Unfortunately, there are those members in Congress that want to exploit the effects of 9/11 to demonize immigrants that are here doing vital and important work," he says, "like picking our crops, working in the service industries, and other areas."
Kelley of the Center for American Progress, who saw her work on immigration policy shift so dramatically toward enforcement after the attacks 10 years ago, also gets frustrated by some of the rhetoric about border security, particularly since illegal migration over the Mexican border has shrunk dramatically in recent years, likely from a combination of increased security, the battered U.S. economy, and economic improvements in Mexico.