From the first presidential election in 1789 until the balloting of 1828, all of America's chief executives had been from Virginia and Massachusetts. But the balance of power in the new nation was shifting. The states that had anchored the Revolution were losing influence to the rapidly growing region farther west that had needs, aspirations, and styles different from those of the original colonies.Andrew Jackson of Tennessee capitalized on that trend. The rough-hewn, quick-tempered, self-taught lawyer—nicknamed "Old Hickory"—had become a national hero as commander of U.S. forces defending New Orleans in the War of 1812 and in his military campaigns against the Seminoles in Florida. He served in the Senate starting in 1823, and in the presidential election of 1824 Jackson won the most popular votes, 43 percent, and a plurality of electoral votes. But since no one got a majority, the decision was thrown to the House of Representatives and Jackson came out the loser. He believed that John Quincy Adams and House Speaker Henry Clay, both of whom had been candidates, entered into a "corrupt bargain" that gave a majority to Adams, who became president and named Clay his secretary of state.Jackson and his supporters simmered for four years. But in 1828, they pulled out all the stops in what became, for all sides, one of the toughest and dirtiest campaigns ever, setting the precedent for future negative campaigns. Jackson's forces attacked Adams as a corrupt politician, a monarchist, and an anti-Catholic zealot. Adams was accused by a Jackson supporter of using "a beautiful girl to seduce the passions of Czar Alexander and sway him to political purpose" while Adams was minister to Russia.For their part, Adams's backers said Jackson was a gambler, an adulterer, and a murderer. Most troubling to the candidate, they accused him of marrying his wife, Rachel, before she and her first husband had been legally divorced. They depicted Rachel as an immoral seductress, and she thought that her reputation was ruined. When Rachel died a few weeks before Jackson's inauguration as America's seventh president, he blamed Adams and his enemies for dragging her name through the mud and causing her to have a fatal nervous breakdown. "In the presence of this dear saint, I can and do forgive all my enemies," he said at her funeral. "But those vile wretches who have slandered her must look to God for mercy."It was the first time that all the states except Delaware and South Carolina chose their electors by popular vote, a sign that the elites who had run the country, such as the state legislators and landed gentry, were losing power. In addition, most states, by reducing or abolishing property requirements, had made it easier for citizens to cast ballots. The total vote rose from nearly 357,000 in 1824 to more than 1.1 million in 1828.During the campaign, Jackson pushed the notion that elites from the East had "cheated" poor whites—and him—out of the White House in 1824. He pledged to protect everyday people from the rich and powerful—a populist theme that has boiled up regularly in presidential campaigns ever since and finds echoes in Barack Obama's theme of taking back Washington from corporate lobbyists this year. Jackson won the popular vote with 59.5 percent and took the Electoral College majority over Adams 178 to 83. Adams's party was known as the National Republicans, Jackson's the Democratic Party.