Students can contact their medical school and ask for a transitional slot, which mimics the fourth year of school, or seek a research fellowship.
"If they do a transitional year or a research fellowship, they can then become more competitive in one of those specialties or they can decide to match in family medicine or general internal medicine where it's easier to get a slot," says Klasko.
Obtaining another degree could also increase a student's chances of matching in the next cycle, Klasko says.
"Now all of a sudden I'm a pretty cool candidate," he says. "It doesn't look like I'm somebody who failed. I'm somebody who decided to get a master's in public health or an MBA. Now I'm a differentiated candidate."
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Corrected 4/10/13: A previous version of this article misstated the name of the National Resident Matching Program.